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              工程造價計算6步走

              時間:2015-06-13 11:44來源:中建教育點擊量:
              1.計算工程量——心中有數,才能有備無患
              工程招標文件中若提供有工程量清單,投標價格計算之前,要對工程量進行校核。若招標文件中沒有提供工程量清單,則必須根據圖紙計算全部工程量。如招標文件對工程量的計算方法有規定,應按照規定的方法進行計算。

              2.確定單價,計算合價——賬房先生要做好
              在投標報價中,計算分部分項工程量以后,就需要確定每一個分部分項工程項目的單價,并按照招標文件中工程量表的格式填寫報價,一般是按照分部分項工程量內容和項目名稱填寫單價與合價。

              計算單價時,應將構成分部分項工程的所有費用項目都歸入其中。 人工、材料、機械費用應該是根據分部分項工程的人工、材料、機械消耗量及其相應的市場價格計算。一般來說,承包企業應建立自己的標準價格數據庫,并據此計算工程的投標價格。在應用單價數據庫針對某一具體工程進行投標報價時,需要對選用的單價進行審核評價與調整,是指符合投標工程的實際情況,反映市場價格的變化。

              在投標價格編制的各個階段,投標價格一般以表格的形式進行計算。

              3.確定分包工程費——合而圍之,各個擊破
              來自分包人的工程分包費用是投標價格的一個重要組成部分,有時總承包人投標價格中的相當部分來自于分包工程費。因此,在編制投標價格時需要有一個核實的價格來衡量分包人的價格,需要熟悉分包工程的范圍,對分包人的能力進行評估。

              4.確定利潤——賠本的買賣咱不干
              利潤指的是承包人的逾期利潤,確定利潤取值的目標是考慮既可以獲得最大的利潤,又要保證投標價格具有一定的競爭性。投標報價時承包人應根據市場競爭情況確定在該工程上的利潤率。

              5.確定風險金——心中有秤砣
              風險金對承包商來說是一個未知數,如果預計的風險沒有全部發生,則可能預計的風險金有剩余,這部分剩余和利潤加在一起就是盈余;如果風險金估計不足,則由盈利來補貼。在投標時應該根據該工程規模及工程所在地的實際情況,由有經驗的專業人員對可能的風險因素進行逐項分析后確定一個比較合理的費用比率。

              6.確定投標價格——調整是關鍵
              根據不同報價模式,將所有費用匯總求和后就可以得到工程的投標報價,但是這樣計算的工程投標報價還不能作為投標價格,因為計算出來的價格可能重復也可能會漏算,也有可能某些費用的預估有偏差等。

              因而必須對計算出來的工程投標報價作某些必要的調整。調整投標報價應當建立在對工程盈虧分析的基礎上,盈虧預測應用多種方法從多種角度進行,找出計算中的問題,并采取措施降低成本,增加盈利,從而確定最后的投標報價。

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