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              高層住宅常見層數為啥是11、18、26、33層,你知道嗎?

              時間:2016-05-31 11:37來源:中建教育點擊量:
              高層住宅的常見層數有 11 層、18 層、26 層、33 層等,這些數字是如何決定的?此外,7層以上就要有載人電梯,請問為什么是7層,而不是6層或8層?
              回答1
              11層:7層以上就要有載人電梯,11層以上就要有消防電梯,防火門達到乙級。因此能賺得多又花得少的就是造11層(電梯都沒有的7層多是學校宿舍樓層)
              18層:11層以上開始需要安全出口,18層以上就要兩個了,且11-18層樓梯間還要設計封閉的。因此賺錢又少花錢少麻煩的的就是18層
              26層:19層開始就是一類防火建筑類型了(之前都是二類),兩部防火電梯(也有說三部電梯一部防火)和兩個防煙樓梯的節奏。
              現下很多發展快的城市會有住宅高度限制,比如80米(機場高度限制,微波通道,城市的天際線控制,城市的規劃要求神馬的)。80/3=26層,于是就是同時滿足住宅限制與利益最大化的層數
              33層:那沒有上述限制的呢?再往上呢?算一層3米,我國《民用建筑設計通則》規定:建筑高度超過100m時,不論住宅及公共建筑均為超高層建筑。(國外還要滿足40層以上),33層再往上超100米了,無論從規范還是安全性都是另一個標準了。因此賺錢多又少麻煩的就是33層了。
              回答2
              這些規范是依據什么來確定建筑層數的呢?為什么一部樓梯偏偏是11層,而不是10層或12層呢?這是規范上沒有說的內容,但是其原理也非常簡單。
              決定一棟建筑層數的分界點來源多個方面。有城市規劃指標和環境影響的要求,有考慮人的生理因素要求,考慮消防因素,以及結構因素。
              一、城市規劃的限制
              首先,城市中的建筑高度都是受城市規劃的控制。例如規劃條件要求多層建筑,你就不能把宿舍修到七層以上。規劃要求高度控制在100米以下,那么設計大概就會在三十層左右。如果你北面有一棟住宅,距離50米,按南方1:1日照間距的要求,你的高度就不能超過50米,一層米,大概就能蓋16層。
              如果在北方,假設日照間距為1:1.2,那么就只能蓋50/3.1/1.2取整13層。另外現在地價高昂,發展商會盡量爭取更高的容積率和可出售面積,也導致住宅建筑的高度越來越高。從經濟利益的角度來說,土地的容積率指標是決定建筑層數的決定因素。
              二、人的生理情況
              這主要影響到多層和高層的分界點。多層建筑可以不設電梯,故考慮到人爬樓梯的體能限制,住宅定超過七層就要設計電梯,并且欄桿高度高于一米一以保證安全。而宿舍是七層以上,辦公五層以上就要設電梯。
              三、消防設施因素
              這是對高層住宅建筑層數臨界點影響最大的一個條件。簡單地說,就是消防員的體力和云梯車的高度確定了住宅建筑的常見層數關系。
              消防要保證建筑防火安全,有兩個重要原則:一是保證人員安全疏散,一般采取雙向疏散來保證。這樣萬一發生火災,總有一頭能跑出去。第二就是消防設施能保障消防員撲救。 其實還有一個原則,就是做好防火措施、減少可燃材料,防止火災蔓延。
              以上大概就是高層民用建筑防火規范規定樓層層數的一些原則,這些高度折算層層數,大致就是題主所問具體數字的來源了。

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